What does the carburetor do?
The structure of the gasoline engine includes equipment such as a carburetor. It should be noted that the engine itself does not carry out the work of preparing the fuel for use, but prepares it just for the carburetor. In order to understand what a carburetor is, you need to know its types and general definition. The carburetor is the engine attachment, which prepares the combustible mixture injected into the engine cylinders for subsequent ignition. As a rule, the carburetor is located on top of the engine.
Carburetors can be divided:
- By camera location:
- Horizontal (used mainly for racing cars).
- Vertical (used in most cars).
- By the presence of a float chamber:
- With a float chamber (complex carburetors that were previously used in aviation).
- With a float chamber (used in most cars).
- By the number of cameras:
- Single chamber.
- Multichamber (used in modern cars).
In turn, multi-chamber carburetors are divided into two types.In the first type, the main and additional cameras are switched on sequentially by means of a transition system, when the volume of the mixture created is insufficient. In the carburetor of the second type, all the cameras work synchronously.
Now it is worth considering in detail how the carburetor works. Its main function is to mix in the required ratio of gasoline with air. Most modern cars use the fuel injection method because it is the most efficient and economical. However, some car models and small devices such as ATVs and lawn mowers use a carburetor because of their simplicity and cheapness.
Basic elements of the carburetor
The basic elements of the simplest carburetor are:
- Air channel. It is the basis of the carburetor and is a hole that provides air to the pipeline of the engine.
- Air damper. It is necessary to increase the speed of the air flow.
- Spray. It is through the jet that the fuel from the float chamber enters.
- Camera. The required level of fuel in the carburetor is constantly maintained by the float chamber.
The principle of the carburetor
The air flow quickly passes through the air channel, which is necessary for the atomization of fuel or for mixing air with fuel. It should be noted that in the float chamber, which contains fuel, the pressure is atmospheric, and in the air channel - discharged. It is because of this difference in pressure that the fuel rises into the air channel, while passing through the jet and sprayer. Then a thin jet of fuel enters the air flow from the sprayer and is sprayed into many small droplets. Thus, a flammable mixture is formed, which subsequently enters the engine cylinders through the intake manifold. If the air damper is open, the air flow rate will increase. In the diffuser, the negative pressure increases with decreasing pressure; therefore, a large amount of fuel enters the air channel through the atomizer, thereby causing an increase in engine speed.
From the above it becomes clear why the carburetor is needed. In fact, the preparation of a combustible mixture - this is the direct purpose of the carburetor.
The process of spraying fuel means crushing the fuel droplets into smaller pieces. It should be noted that high-quality sputtering is extremely necessary in order to reduce the toxicity of exhaust gases. It is achieved in two ways:
- Air is introduced into the jet of fuel, which creates turbulence, which in turn breaks up a continuous jet into small parts.
- This method consists in installing a fuel outlet at the point where the air flow rate is greatest, which causes the fuel to break into fine dust.
It is important to note that the carburetor should spray the fuel, and not evaporate it. As for evaporation, it should occur already in the intake manifold, as well as the engine cylinder. Especially for this intake manifold is heated. This is done in order to reduce the condensation of fuel on the walls and improve evaporation. Most often, heating is carried out using engine coolant. It flows through the water channels of the collector, in rare cases - through the carburetor body itself and the throttle body.
The main functions of the carburetor
So, to better understand what the carburetor is doing, it is necessary to examine in detail its main functions in action:
- Introduction to the air flow of fuel, spraying it and partial evaporation. This is the initial stage of blending.
- The resulting mixture enters the intake manifold and engine cylinders, while continuing to evaporate the fuel.
- Carried out in accordance with the load and speed modes of the engine fuel dosage.
- Changes the amount of the mixture depending on the mode of operation of the engine.
In addition, the carburetor should always ensure reliable engine start, both cold and hot, engine operation at elevated temperatures, as well as a rapid change in the composition of the mixture.
Now you know what the carburetor is doing, now any self-respecting driver should know how his car works. Sometimes it happens that on the road there was a breakdown, the driver, who has no idea what a carburetor is, cannot cope with even the most elementary breakdown. Often in the service centers, the masters "breed" inexperienced car owners for money, while, knowing the basic principles of your "iron friend", you can repair it yourself.
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