How did the state come about?
There are many scientific theories about when and how the state arose, as a social system. According to historical data, the first of them appeared about 5-6 thousand years ago. They were located in the valleys of the Yellow River, Yangtze, Indus, Nile, Euphrates and Tigris. For information on what kind of community can get statehood, read our article - What is a sign of the state.
Prerequisites of the state
All theories of the emergence of the state system are based on the study of the fact why the state arose:
- The environmental factor is the unification of people according to the principle of economic activity that they conducted. For example, irrigation and related activities were factors that influenced the emergence of the state;
- Geographical factor - people united geographically;
- The influence of wars, strife, strife - it was necessary to defend;
- The demographic factor - due to the increase in the population of certain territories, people stoppedmigrate;
- The national factor is the dominance of one or another national idea in a single society;
- Psychological factor - it was easier for people to live according to the rules established by the community;
- The economic factor is the division of the population according to labor specialization, the appearance of money and trade.
How the state arose: theories
There are basic theories of the origin of the state system:
- Theocratic theory: the state arises by the will of God. Its adherents argue that states appear because a certain Higher Power "wants" this.
- Patriarchal or paternal theory - the state arises according to the family model, where the man-father dominates.
- Contractual (natural law) theory - a state arises as a result of a social contract.
- Organic theory — according to it, the state arose like any biological living object — people in a state are like cells of an organism, and state institutions and institutions are like organs and organ systems.
- The theory of psychological - according to its founders Z. Freud and G. Tarde, the state arises because of the specific properties of the human psyche.
- The theory of violence - according to it, one group of people by violence and enslavement subjugates the rest of society, forming its “top”.
- Irrigation theory is the theory that states emerged as a result of the collective activity of people in river valleys, through the use of river natural resources (irrigation).
- Economic theory - the state arose because it was profitable from an economic point of view.
In addition to the basic, there are also other theories of the origin of states: incest, racial, diffuse, sports and others.
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