Biochemical blood test: normal indicators
Preparation for biochemical analysis of blood
Reliable results can be obtained only with proper preparation for biochemical analysis of blood. 12 hours before the examination, one should not eat food, sweet water, tea, coffee, alcoholic beverages, milk, kefir. You can drink clean water, and for three hours before the analysis, give up water.
Normal indicators of biochemical analysis of blood
A blood test for biochemistry is taken from a vein. Under laboratory conditions, determine the level of hemoglobin, haptoglobin, glucose, urea, residual nitrogen, creatinine, total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, bilirubin, protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lipases, amylases, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, antistreptolysin-O rheumatoid antibodies factor and inflammation, alkaline phosphatase, alpha-1-globulins, alpha-2-globulins, beta-globulins, potassium, calcium, sodium, chlorine, iron.
Hemoglobin transports oxygen to organs and tissues. Normal values in the biochemical blood test for men range from 130 to 160 g per liter, for women from 120 to 150 g per liter. Reduced hemoglobin levels suggest that anemia is suspected.
Gapotoglobin is a glycoprotein. Its content changes with age. Normally, blood levels range from 350 to 1750 mg per liter. The level of glucose in the biochemical analysis of blood varies from 3.30 to 6.1 millimoles per liter. If the figures are higher, the patient is sent for detailed examination to the endocrinologist.
The urea level is normally from 2.5 to 8.3 millimoles per liter. High levels indicate impaired renal function. Residual nitrogen in the blood serum is normally from 14.3 to 28.6 mmol / l. Creatinine from 44 to 106 mmol / liter. When considering the level of creatinine and urea, the degree of renal dysfunction is judged.
Blood total lipids should not exceed 4-8 grams per liter. Total cholesterol from 3.6 to 7, 8 millimoles per liter. Moreover, the recommended level of cholesterol is less than 5 mmol. If the maximum permissible parameters are exceeded, the patient is diagnosed with atherosclerosis and a detailed examination is prescribed.
The norm of low-density cholesterol (LDL) for men is equal to from 2.02 to 4.79 mmol, for women - from 1.92, to 4, 51 mmol per liter. High density cholesterol (HDL) normally ranges from 0.72 to 1.63 for men and from 0.86 to 2.28 mmol per liter for women. When calculating the risk of atherosclerosis, a special formula is used. Normally, atherogenicity indicators do not exceed 3.
The rate of triglycerides depends on age. It is determined in accordance with the generally accepted table. The minimum limit of 0.34, the maximum is not higher than 2.71.
Phospholipids normally contain at least 2.52 and not more than 2.91. The total bilirubin is from 8.5 to 20.55 micromoles per liter. Total protein in adults from 65 to 85. Aspartate aminotransferase (AsAt) from 28 to 129. Elevated levels indicate a fresh myocardial infarction, damage to somatic and cardiac muscles.
The AlAt level is determined to assess the functional capacity of the liver. Normally, the enzyme contains from 28 to 178 nkat per liter.
Lipase is secreted by the pancreas. The normal content of the enzyme is from 0 to 190 units per liter. Elevated lipase levels indicate damage or inflammation of the pancreas. Normally, alpha-amylase is 28-100 units.Pancreatic amylase 0-50 units.
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in men is normally 15-106, in women 10-66 µmol per liter.
The presence of rheumatoid antibodies in the serum can be observed in autoimmune diseases. C-reactive protein speaks of an inflammatory process.
The norm of alpha1 globulins from 2.1 to 3.5 g per liter, alpha2 globulins from 5.1 to 8.5 g per liter. Beta globulins from 6.0 to 9.4 g per liter. Gamma globulin from 8.0 to 13.5 g per liter. Calcium from 2.15 to 2.50 mmol, potassium from 4.1 to 5.5. Sodium from 136 to 145 mmol, chlorine from 98 to 107 mmol, iron from 7.16 to 30.43 mmol.
Kevin Spacey Comes Out
With the help of hot glue applied to the parchment, an excellent decor is obtained
Top 8 images for going to the movies watch to them
What is blockade technology in simple words
What bad habits spoil sex life
Cross-stitch for beginners
How to make a bouquet of sweets in the basket on the birth of a child